Cleanroom Lithography

Cleanroom Lithography

The INL Cleanroom offers a comprehensive set of equipment for flexible lithography process and product development, with an extensive portfolio of processes and photoresists.



Lithography Processes

Optical and e-beam lithography processes with both positive and negative-tone resists are available for substrates from 200-mm-diameter wafers down to samples below 10mm in size and square mask plates up to 9 inches.

Direct-write lithography with a 405nm laser writer for processing samples from 10mm in size to wafers up to 200mm and mask plates up to 9 inches, as well as exposure on flexible substrates.

  • With positive tone photoresists (AZ series)
    • Standard process thickness 600nm, 1000nm, 1200nm, 2200nm for wet and dry etch processes
    • Limited capabilities with 200nm for highest resolution
    • Limited capabilities with 4µm to 20µm
    • Standard process with underlying LOR layer for lift-off process
    • Process with negative profile with 600nm photoresist (for lift-off of metal deposition)
    • Bilayer resist with lift-off resist
    • Grey-level lithography (60 levels available) for 2.5D fabricated structures
  • With positive tone photoresist series for greyscale lithography (ma-P 1200 series)
    • Film thickness up to 60µm
    • Grey-level lithography (128 levels available)
  • With negative tone phororesists (mr series):
    • Pocesses with 1 to 40µm epoxy resin for direct-write for specific applications (microelectronics passivation, epoxy micromachines, microfluidics)

INL cleanroom is equipped two Mask Aligners dedicated for production. One uses a mercury lamp and 7-inch masks, using different UV bands with top and bottom alignment. The other uses 9-inch masks and an LED source; can perform automated alignments for an increased throughput and precision in aligned exposure from both top and bottom sides.

  • With positive tone photoresists (AZ series)
    • Standard process thickness 600nm, 1000nm, 1200nm, 2200nm for wet and dry etch processes
    • Standard process with underlying LOR layer for lift-off process
  • With special resists
    • UV-sensitive polyimide (e.g., for flexible devices)
    • Photo sensitive ProTEK PSB (negative-working etch mask for KOH wet etch for silicon micromachining)
    • UV-sensitive SU-8 (negative tone photoresist up to 150µm thickness)

Nanoimprint lithography is a recent addition to the capabilities of INL, enabling the patterning of a wide range of hard and soft materials and the fast fabrication of 3D micro- and nanostructures in a single step. The masters to be used for imprint can be produced using our DWL or EBL tools.

INL is equipped with e-beam lithography which has demonstrated resolution down to 7nm.

A range of photoresist options has been validated

  • Positive tone PMMA 100 nm to 430 nm and bilayer PMMA processes for lift-off of nanostructures
  • Positive photoresists ZEP520 and AR-P 6200 for etching applications
  • Negative tone AR-N 7520 for etching of nanopillars, range 80nm to 800nm in thickness, achieving typically 50nm lateral size for 200nm photoresist thickness.
  • Limited testing on HSQ negative tone resist for highest resolution and semiconductor applications
  • Epocor/Epoclad epoxy resist for direct write of optical waveguides

The e-beam system accepts wafers of 3 inch and 200mm in diameter, sample parts of irregular shapes fitting into a 76mm circular holder, and glass masks 6 inch in diameter. The e-beam exposure files are converted using Genisys Layout Beamer and can include proximity effect correction in dose factor and in shape.


Suss Microtec
High-throughput Coating & Development Process

  • Handling of round and square substrates up to 200mm.
  • Thin, thick resists, polyimide.
  • Precision edge bead removal.
  • Process up to 25 wafers in one batch.
Suss Microtec
Optical Exposure with Mask Aligner

  • Substrates up to 200mm
  • Masks from 2″ to 9″ plates
  • Broadband wavelength: 365/405nm
  • Modes of operation: Soft, Hard and Vacuum Contact, Proximity exposure and Flood exposure
  • Automatic alignment and backside-alignment capability
Exposure with Direct Write Laser

  • Substrates up to 200mm
  • Minimum structure size: 700 nm
  • Autofocus: optically or pneumatically
  • Auto-measurement capability
  • Grey-level lithography with 128 levels
Obducat Eitre 8
Nanoimprint lithography system

  • Allows both thermal and UV nanoimprint lithography
  • Full area: 8″ square
Vistec E-beam Lithography

  • Thermal Field Emission gun for operation at 50 and 100kV and up to 100nA beam current
  • Capability of writing on Si and other substrates (glass, metals, SiO2,) up to 200mm size
  • Capability of writing 150-mm optical masks for contact and projection lithography
  • Write field up to 520µm.

Ascent+ facility

Platform Technologies

  • Nano for Quantum Technologies
  • Disruptive Devices

Key Enabling Capability

  • Processing

Additional information

Key Enabling Capability


Platform Technology

Disruptive Devices, Nano for Quantum Technologies