- Nano for quantum technologies
- Disruptive devices
- Advanced material integration
- Advanced device integration
- Advanced package integration
- Fraunhofer IAF
- The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics is a leading science and technology centre in the field of micro and nano-structured compound semiconductors and devices made from synthetic diamond. Research and development is focused on micro and optoelectronic circuits, modules and systems for applications in safety, security and communication systems as well as for medical applications and environmental protection. The institute features a cutting-edge semiconductor process line, thus being able to provide leading edge devices, circuits and modules with the highest functionalities as prototypes or in small quantities. Our national and international partners in research and
technology are the Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg), the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), national state governments, the European Commission, and industrial enterprises. The Institute was founded in 1957 and now has a total staff of 300 scientists, engineers and technicians. The annual budget amounts to €32M.
The Diamond Research Group consists of 25 members. The diamond laboratory is equipped with 10 microwave plasmaenhanced CVD (PECVD) reactors for diamond growth, state of the art technology (dry and wet-chemical etching, polishing and laser cutting) and a variety of characterization tools like confocal photoluminescence, XRD, Micro-Raman, Hanbury Brown and Twiss antibunching set-up, SEM and optical emission spectroscopy (OEM). The team has developed outstanding expertise in:
- Homoepitaxial growth of PECVD diamond
- Diamond related technologies like polishing, cutting, etching, bonding
- Fabrication of ultra-pure and nitrogen delta-doped diamond for quantum applications, photon system (wave-guides) and surface enlarged diamond interfaces with NV-doped surface layers
The team growth atomically flat diamond planar or 3D-shaped, isotopically enriched diamond, boron- (p-type) and phosphorus- (n-type) doped diamond.
- Fraunhofer IISB
- The Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology conducts applied research and development in the field of electronic systems for application in power electronics, e.g., electric mobility, aerospace, Industry 4.0, power grids or energy technology, and here covering the entire value chain – from basic materials (WBG) to complex power electronic systems. Technology and manufacturing at Fraunhofer IISB involves research, development, and prototype manufacturing in the field of power electronic devices on silicon (Si) as well as on 4H-silicon carbide (SiC). Especially for SiC, Fraunhofer IISB runs a continuous manufacturing line from design to epitaxy, to device manufacturing, to wafer thinning and backside processing, up to packaging and advanced electrical characterization. For 150mm this is unique in Europe. Fraunhofer IISB and the Chair of Electron Devices of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg operate joint clean room facilities of 1500m2 with CMOS-compatible equipment for that.
The main activities focus on the fields of Si power semiconductors, passives, and SiC electronics. The physical and electrical characterization of process steps and device structures is of utmost importance for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices and here, the Fraunhofer IISB analysis laboratory for micro- and nanotechnology with various chemical, physical-chemical, and physical test methods is essential for a conclusive and comprehensible assessment. A specific competence of the IISB is the combination of several methods for defect and failure analysis during the manufacturing of semiconductor devices and circuits by tracing the causes of failure.
- Fraunhofer IPMS
- The Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems with the Center Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT) carries out applied research on 300mm wafers for IC manufacturers, suppliers, equipment manufacturers and R&D partners. CNT offers the following services on Ultra Large-Scale Integration (ULSI) level. CNT has its own 800 m2 clean room with 40 processing and analytic tools for 200/300 mm wafer and offers professional wafer handling for a smooth wafer exchange (short loops). The competencies of the CNT division are focused on Nanopatterning, Energy Devices, Non-volatile Memory and Interconnects. More than 40 process and analytical tools for 200 and 300 mm wafers are available in a 800 m2 clean room compliant with industry standards.
- Fraunhofer IZM
- The Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration has more than 400 employees and is one of the leading institutes in the world in the field of microelectronics and microsystem packaging. The institute covers all the competencies needed for advanced packaging such as process development, qualification, testing and reliability and failure analysis with specific links to 3D Wafer level packaging and 3D heterogeneous integration.
Fraunhofer ASSID, as part of Fraunhofer IZM, will take the lead as it is operating a leading edge R&D line 3D system integration line (300/200mm) for development and prototyping. To maintain “More than Moore” activities within Fraunhofer the R&D line focusses on 3D-wafer level system integration covering technology, process, equipment evaluation and development as well as prototyping and pilot manufacturing under industry-compatible conditions.
Nano for Quantum Technologies
- For the technologist seeking to build devices that take advantage of the quantum mechanical properties of coherence and entanglement, diamond looks to be the ideal material. Single-crystal diamond has long held appeal as a gemstone, and its extreme electrical, optical, and mechanical properties have already found applications such as heat spreaders, optical windows, and electrodes for electrochemistry, high-energy particle detectors, dosimeters, and biosensors. However, it is in the quantum domain that diamond truly stands apart, its optical properties tailor-made for the fabrication of the building blocks of new quantum technologies. The optical centres in diamond offer access to isolated quantum systems that can be controlled at room temperature.
Fraunhofer IAF has established a diamond growth facility which covers all required technologies like growth of ultrapure diamond (Nitrogen and boron background <1015 cm-3) to grow isotopically enriched diamond (12C and 13C), to grow thin layers (10nm) delta doped with nitrogen, to grow p-type (boron-doped) and n-type (phosphorus doped) diamond. Furthermore, the growth of up to 6 inch poly- and nano-diamond films has been established over recent years. Besides growth, polishing, laser-cutting and dry etching has been developed for mirror-grade surface finish, 3D shaping and membrane fabrication.
Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT offers mask-less patterning using via e-beam for prototyping and developing on (up to) 300mm substrates. A new PVD Cluster Endura tool (by Applied materials) allows sub-nm thickness deposition on (up to) 300mm wafer to realize various material systems like Co, Ru, Ti, Ta and oxides or alloys but also silicon based layers allow optical or electrical active material stacks which can be used as silicate glass like Si(C,N,O) or as SiGe thin films or superlattices.
- As well as standard physical and electrical characterization, an electrical test bed with cryo-capability and magnetic field application will be available to perform material property probing for various purposes depending on the material stack and structure.
- Fraunhofer IPMS eNVM group offers the various memory applications that have been developed, or are currently under development, to the user community. Material stacks produced by the new Endura Clover multi cathode chamber (AMAT) for MRAM or RRAM applications can be offered for in-memory computing investigations. Further ferroelectric stacks, which were already introduced to HVM Fabs, are also available. These were developed on ALD-(doped) HfOx basis and can be customized to correspond to user needs.
- Modelling/Data Sets
- These (Si, Zr, …) doping profiles of ferroelectric HfOx elaborated data sets of hysteresis in polarization curves are developed and can be used as reference points.
- Metrology and Characterisation
- The advanced electrical characterization Lab was established to investigate chip performances at coupon or wafer level. Recent Measurements topics include Noise, RF and mmWave. Recently two new wafer probers, in addition to our existing tool park, were purchased to fulfil mentioned characterization as well as reliability requirements. For unusual layouts a picoprober is available to offer nonconventional probing and manipulation modes. Further, state-of-the-art physical lab-equipment to support material stack analysis (TEM, AFM, XRR…) will be available.
- Devices/Test Structures
- Logic and memory co-integration devices in FEoL for in-memory/neuromorphic computing are in recent projects in development as well as multi-level memory and TCAM test structures. For structures >130nm there are established industrial partner routes for memory test vehicle in place and for special needs e-beam structures can be written (without masks) down to <50nm critical dimensions.
Advanced Material Integration
- Fraunhofer IISB has developed epitaxial growth processes for growth on the Si- and C-face of 4H-SiC vicinal substrates having different off-cuts, e.g. different off-cut angles and directions. Furthermore, a certain growth process for epilayers with low Basal Plane Dislocation densities is available.
In our established Screening Fab activities Fraunhofer IPMS built an infrastructure for IC manufacturers, consumable & tool suppliers and research facilities to test and evaluate on 300 mm wafers and bellow advanced processes in:
- Polishing (CMP)
- Deposition (ECD, ELD, PVD, ALD, CVD)
- ECD/ELD (Cu, Co)
- PVD (Ta(N), Ti(N), Cu, Hf(ox), MgOx, Ru, Co, FeCo(B), …)
- ALD/CVD ( Co, TaNx, TiN, Al2O3m, HfO2 (dop.), ZrO2, …)
- Si based materials (SiO2, SiOCH, SiGe, amorphous Si, poly Si, epi Si, …)
- Etching (dry, wet)
- Nanopatterning (e-beam) resist evaluation, software development
For advanced integration especially within our Screening FAB offers a professional test bench and qualification platform. Beside single unit processes also complete lines can be used to test material/process properties. The Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT is very experienced with ferroelectric Memory concepts with doped HfOx and also with RRAM approaches. A new purchased multicathode cluster tool will also enable MRAM capabilities. These Memory concepts will not only be used in transistor level but there are several activities to implement them in the interconnect levels (BEoL) for value added solutions, which combines two core competences within the CNT business unit. Besides memory stacks also planar or 3d integrated MIM stacks and its integration within the interconnect level are important research activities in the energy group. Here Si- and HfOx based thermo- and pyroelectric stack play also an important role for energy harvesting and sensing application.
- Modelling/Data Sets
- For integration of different materials or structures (structure density etc.) CMP modelling algorithms are developed at Fraunhofer IPMS and can be used for different CMP related questions.
- Fraunhofer IISB has profound knowledge about the characterization of structural defects in 4H-SiC material as well as about the electrical characterization of electronic devices at its disposal. IISB offers characterization services and support for customers to identify the appropriate characterization methods for their specific topics:
- Epilayers and Devices
- SEM equipped with EDS, CL, EBIC
- TEM equipped with EDS, EELS
- Focused ion beam (FIB)
- X-ray topography (XRT)
- Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
- Epitaxial Layers
- Defect selective etching (DSE)
- Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements
- Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
- Microwave-detected photoconductivity decay (µ-PCD)
- Photoluminescence scanning of defects (PLS)
- Electronic Devices
- Electrical characterization of devices (I-V, C-V) up to 500°C
- Parameter analysis of MOSFET devices
- Static and dynamic characterization of high voltage devices
- Automatic probing for reliability prediction
Fraunhofer IPMS physical and electrical characterization:
- 300mm metrology tools including D-AFM, (AR)XPS, XRR/XRD, Pattern Defect Inspection, Rs, HR-profilometry, CD-/Review-SEM, electrical prober
- Lab analytic tools including: AFM, XPS, SEM, TEM, XRD/XRR, FT-IR, ToF-SIMS, Ellipsometry, Porisometry CVS, EIs, electrical Prober
- Epilayers and Devices
- Devices/Test Structures
- Fraunhofer IPMS have available 300mm test vehicles and devices developed with our partners down to 22nm technology node which can be also modified by structure narrowing or mix & match approached by e-beam lithography. E-beam nanopatterning itself can also be used to test new integration concepts can be applied and therefore test patterns can be co-developed or requested.
Advanced Device Integration
- Fraunhofer IISB develops new SiC-device concepts and will make technology and knowledge available to users in order to support research, development, and manufacturing of SiC-based devices. IISB in-house prototype fabrication π-fab offers the development and manufacturing of customer-specific power semiconductor prototypes (e.g. High channel mobility MOSFETs or UV detectors). Fabrication is based on a Si-CMOS process line and covers single devices as well as whole device concepts or specific process steps.
- Continuous Process Line
- Wet chemistry for cleaning
- PECVD and ALD
- Ion implantation with wafer heating
- Annealing up to 1750°C in various atmospheres
- Metallization & Packaging
- Contact formation (ohmic and Schottky)
- Deposition and structuring of metallization layers and their passivation for application temperatures up to 500°C
- Sintering processes for packaging
- Continuous Process Line
- Defect engineering
- Contamination, electrical & physical characterization test labs
- Static and dynamic electrical analysis of power devices up to 500°C
- Ruggedness and reliability
- (Cross-)contamination analysis
- Devices/Test Structures
- Design and fabrication of test structures
- Manufacturing of power electronic and sensor devices
In addition Fraunhofer IISB offers customized development and assembly for SiC modules, ranging from different die attach technologies and concepts to high speed switching designs as well as accelerated aging and lifetime modelling.
- Dynamic switching performance
- Active and passive temperature cycles
- Shear tests as die attach quality indicator
- Analysis of lifetime and failure mechanisms
- Thermal management from die to coolant
- Plastic deformation during active and passive cycling
- Intermetallic diffusion for high temperature chip metallization
- Electric field distributions
- Customized multi-chip power modules
- Manufacturing and packaging
- Design for electrical, thermal, mechanical, and lifetime constraints
Advanced Package Integration
- Fraunhofer IZM provide access to include all relevant unit processes required for of advanced packaging integration on 300/200mm wafer sizes as well as panel level processing. This includes
- TSV process integration (via middle, via last)
- Si Interposer with Cu-TSV
- High-density multilayer copper wiring
- Permanent and temporary wafer bonding, hybrid / direct bond technology
- Flexible substrates
- Bumping & thin die interconnects: high-density micro-bumps (e.g. SnAg, Cu-Pillar, CuSn, AuSn, Au, NiAu)
- Thinning & dicing
- Fine pitch flip chip assembly: chip-to-wafer, chip-to-chip, chip-to-substrate
- Wafer and panel molding
- Modelling/Data Sets
- Fraunhofer IZM offers electrical, thermo-mechanical and thermal modelling of custom structures. Reliability assessments can be performed and verified by practical stress tests on proprietary or custom designed structures. Based on the geometry and material data, the mechanical and thermal behaviour can be simulated. Additionally, it is possible to take thermal-mechanical, electrical-thermal and electrical-mechanical couplings into account. By making use of failure models, the assessed stress limits or the lifetime can be determined and or predicted.
Important aspects are:
- Determination of geometry: the geometry is determined on the basis of CAD-data or as part of the process and technology development.
- Selecting material data: good materials data is a key element for reliability assessment. Material data is already available for several materials. For new materials or extended fields of application (e.g. high temperature), additional material properties can be characterised and prepared for the simulation.
- Assessing production quality: stresses at the various stages of assembly can be investigated by simulation. Typical evaluation criteria are fracture stress and maximum permissible thermo-mechanical deformation.
- Determining hot spot temperatures: simulating the temperature distribution and identifying hot spots for various operational states (power loss: static and transient), and cooling parameters as elements of thermal management.
- Determining the lifetime: to evaluate long-term effects, mechanisms such as thermo-mechanical fatigue (e.g. at soldered joints, through vias), fracture processes, moisture diffusion, delamination, and electro-migration, are determined by using lifetime models– if necessary new lifetime models are developed.
Using the holistic M3-approach (methodologies, models and measures) from Fraunhofer-IZM, the best electrical design
solutions will be ensured first time right. This is achieved by systematically considering a multitude of factors that impact system performance right at the beginning of the design phase, e.g. the impact of electronic packaging materials
and technologies, as well as the impact of fabrication tolerances on system performance.
- Fraunhofer IZM has a wide range of techniques available for user-specific projects. This includes industry-compatible inline wafer metrology (CD, AOI, film thickness, surface characterization, AFM). Wafer electrical test (WET) can be performed within the cleanroom. Furthermore, functional wafer test is available on an automated wafer tester. Failure analysis techniques are available for characterization of the manufactured structures.This includes destructive (SEM) and non-destructive (XRAY) methods. The in-plane und out-of-plane deformation of materials or composites due to external loads or internal stresses can be investigated by means of digital image correlation. The internal structure of an apparently homogeneous material can have a considerable influence on its properties. Structural analysis as part of a “physics of failure” approach can identify failure mechanisms so that avoidance measures can be taken. In addition temperature measurements on assemblies with IR thermography and sensors e.g. to measure temperature distribution, hot spot temperatures, and thermal resistance and impedance is possible at Fraunhofer IZM.
Due to the increasing frequency ranges for new applications the RF characterization will be of high importance:
- RF characterization of packaging materials, package-integrated structures and technologies for a wide range of applications up to 220GHz
- RF design of antennas, antenna systems and passive components
- RF and high-speed system design for signal/power integrity and EMC
- Design and integration of miniaturized wireless sensor nodes and systems
- Power supply and energy management in microelectronic systems
- Physical design tools and software
- Devices/Test structures
- Fraunhofer IZM uses a set of proprietary wafers, for process development and characterization. These designs are offered to ASCENT+ users for processing at their facilities or within IZM. Furthermore, IZM can manufacture designs provided by partners as well as design and manufacture test wafers based on the inputs of partners. IZM offers evaluation services for process materials within its cleanroom environment on industry-compatible manufacturing equipment. Furthermore, material can provided for external evaluation of new tools or materials with subsequent completion and testing at IZM.