Leti, a technology research institute at CEA, is a global leader in miniaturization technologies enabling smart, energy-efficient and secure solutions for industry. Founded in 1967, CEA-Leti pioneers micro-& nanotechnologies, tailoring differentiating applicative solutions for global companies, SMEs and startups. CEA-Leti tackles critical challenges in healthcare, energy and digital migration. From sensors to data processing and computing solutions, CEA-Leti’s multidisciplinary teams deliver solid expertise, leveraging world-class pre-industrialization facilities. With a staff of more than 1,900, a portfolio of 3,100 patents, 10,000 sq. meters of cleanroom space and a clear IP policy, the institute is based in Grenoble, France, and has offices in Silicon Valley and Tokyo. CEA-Leti has launched 65 startups and is a member of the Carnot Institutes network. Follow us on www.leti-cea.com and @CEA_Leti.
CEA has a key role in transferring scientific knowledge and innovation from research to industry. This high-level technological research is carried out in particular in electronic and integrated systems, from microscale to nanoscale. It has a wide range of industrial applications in the fields of transport, health, safety and telecommunications, contributing to the creation of high-quality and competitive products.
- Nano for Quantum Technologies
- Disruptive Devices
- Advanced Integration
CEA-Leti is a French research institute and a world-leading innovation hub for micro and nanotechnologies
At CEA-Leti, multidisciplinary teams and experts are creating breakthrough innovations in all domains, from advanced CMOS architectures to MEMS, NEMS and power devices, in microdisplays and infrared advanced technologies and systems, and from microfluidics to mobile medical devices. CEA-Leti is also developing cutting-edge technologies in the areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Quantum Computing (QC).
CEA-Leti is currently running processes on 200mm and 300mm wafers in clean room facilities of more than 10,000 m2. In particular, the 300mm area is currently equipped with more than 80 processing tools and is running processes at 20nm and beyond technology nodes and new equipment is constantly being added. Both areas are used for work with industrial partners and wafers are regularly exchanged with industrial facilities as all protocols for contamination control and traceability are in place. The processing capabilities are supported by over 150 advanced Physical/Characterization and Electrical characterization tools, of which a number are on-line in the clean room and capable of handling both 200mm and 300mm wafers.
CEA-Leti benefits of internal strong partnership and collaborations with other CEA labs. This is the case for example for Quantum Computing with INAC (Institut Nanosciences et Cryogenie).
Metrology and Characterisation
The nano characterisation platform at CEA-Leti is unique in Europe. A user gets critical physical and chemical information on their technology, both are essential to understand and improve Quantum effects. The nano characterisation platform develops new physico-chemical characterisation techniques across a wide range of scientific fields: micro/nanotechnology, nanomaterials, energy materials, biotechnology. Indeed, the nano characterisation platform located on the MINATEC campus, operated by experts in nano characterization, offers a unique set of complementary characterisation techniques and is equipped with state-of-the-art tools.
CEA-Leti offers Metrology/Characterisation access to the nano characterization platform which is composed of the
following centres of competences:
- Ion beam analysis (SIMS, ToF-SIMS, Atom Probe, SIMS-FIB,…)
- X-ray analysis (XRD, XRF, XRR, HRXRD, XCT,…);
- Electron microscopy (SEM, HR-SEM, TEM, HR-TEM, UHR-TEM, STEM, electron holography, electron tomography, EELS, X-EDS,…)
- Scanning probe microscopy (AFM, UHV-AFM, electrical AFM,…)
- Surface analysis (XPS, UPS, PEEM, k-PEEM, LEED, RHEED, nanoAUGER,…)
- Optical characterization (RAMAN, micro-RAMAN, FTIR, Ellipsometry (VUV, VIS, NIR), Spectrophotometry, micro-Photoluminescence, Cathodoluminescence…)
- Sample preparation (DB-FIB, Tripod,…)
In addition to access to the full set of electrical characterization tools, techniques and methods, CEA-Leti offers access to Ultra Low Temperature Electrical Characterization through its collaboration with INAC (Institut Nanosciences et Cryogenie) in CEA which includes electrical characterization in a large range of temperature, routinely from ambient to 4K, and more specifically to Ultra Low Temperature (<1K). Low temperature tests are critical to evidence, control, understand and improve quantum effects. In addition to experimental access, the experience that CEA experts offer will be of significant benefit to quantum projects.
Modelling and Data Sets for Disruptive Devices
A large database of measured advanced device electrical data are already available, generally coupled with physical/chemical characterization and reliability analysis. Whenever possible access to this electrical data will be provided, for further analysis, treatment or modeling.
Simulations and models related to the “Devices/Test Structures” can also be provided to Users for their research. LETI has acquired a large background on the simulation of OxRAM materials: several models of interface between Ti/HO2, TiN/HfO2 have been used to extract activation energies using state-of-the-art ab initio simulations. In addition, CEA-Leti is working on compact models for such OxRAM memories. Concerning 2D materials, CEA-Leti uses ab initio simulations to derive models of interface between metal (Ti, Au) and 2D (MoS2) plus intercalated layers, in order to study Schottky contact modulation. This action will be further exploited, validated and reinforced through JRA3 research. For stacked nanowires transistors, CEA-Leti has performed advanced studies of carrier transport, thanks to NEGF simulations. These simulations have in particular been used to support the development of a dedicated compact model. Moreover, a model of nanolayers of Si/SiO2/HfO2/TiN, periodically repeated, has been derived to study the effect of stress, dopants, thickness onto the threshold voltage. Finally, for phase change memories, basic materials have been studied through ab initio simulations to extract their surface and interface energies.
Devices and Test Structures
CEA-Leti focus on new concepts of CMOS and memory technologies which can be used both in More Moore and More Than Moore approaches. Proposed developments in CMOS include stacked nanowires which allow unique improvement of performances together with short channel effect control, and 3D sequential integration technologies; 3D sequential offers huge perspectives to increase the density of integration but also open new applications where digital active devices could be superimposed to any other technology as MEMs, analog, bio, …. Proposed memories are OXRAM and PCRAM that offer high potential for neuromorphic architectures due to the analog level programming control.
CEA-Leti offers access to these disruptive devices to allow users to make complementary electrical tests and electrical studies when not already available, as performances, reliability, modelling, benchmarking, etc.
More precisely the technologies concerned are:
- MOS Nanowires on SOI or Stacked Nanowires on SOI. Main characteristics are Sub 10nm devices, gate first or gate last, Si or SiGe channel, stain engineering on NMOS and PMOS, …
- 3D Sequential technologies with specific low temperature process management. This includes several combinations of top and bottom NMOS and PMOS transistors of 28nm gate length node.
- PCRAM with various compositions of Ge Sn Te materials, various geometries down to ~60nm, various architectures (heaters, electrodes,…) ; available structures are 1R (active resistor) on which key studies of electrical conduction, reliability, thermal effects could strongly interest users.
- OXRAM with various compositions Hf-based active materials, various geometries, various architectures (heaters, electrodes, …); available structures are 1R (active resistor) but also 1T1R (resistor controlled by a transistor) which are key to control current on these structures. Key studies as for example variability of programmed states could be performed.
CEA-Leti will also offer a specific support in electrical measurement methods, electrical analysis and physical parameters extractions for Access Users with specific demands on 2D materials.
Advanced Integration Processing
In its 200 and 300mm clean room facilities, CEA-Leti has the capacity to develop complete flows of electronic component manufacturing with highly sophisticated equipments such as for various material deposition and advanced immersion lithography, and allows it to develop state-of-the-art processes and built upstream technological demonstrators. CEA-Leti has the ability to develop breakthrough leading edge technology by deploying all the necessary activities to bring a new technology to an early industrial maturity stage.
CEA-Leti provides access to device structures, including the possibility to modify some process steps. This may include specific steps in the process and its characterization. For example, for memory technologies but also neuromorphic applications, CEA-Leti is able to develop engineering of different materials, to benchmark e-PCM with OXRAM type eNVM, which will include the characterization, physics studies and the development of compact modelling of OXRAM. Possible actions with users include active materials (HFO2/HFOx), electrodes, interlayers (Al2O3, others) and material/electrode combination for resilient applications. Similarly for PCM (Phase Change Memories) CEA-Leti works on advanced materials processes including metals of the electrodes, dielectrics that surround the phase change materials, thermal barriers and phase change materials itself, e.g. GeTe/Sb2Te3 and Ge-enriched Ge2Sb2Te5 (Ge-rich GST).
Metrology and Characterisation
CEA-Leti provides access to its unique nanocharacterization platform, described above.
Similarly CEA-Leti provides access to its Electrical characterization and Reliability Labs which allows all kind of tests for Materials, CMOS, Memories and MEMs, coupled to high level expertise. Systems go from fully automated cassette-to-cassette probe testing to highly specialize individual probe stations for testing unique properties or testing under non-typical conditions. A dedicated staff runs the facility and offers the opportunity to outside users to come to perform tests under supervision of the platform staff.
Main tests families are:
- General purpose I(V)-C(V) tests
- HF tests
- Noise measurements
- Reliability tests as breakdown, TDDB, BTI, hot carriers, DLTS, Internal Photo Emission
- Emission Microscopy in visible and infrared range
- High Power tests (10kV, >100A)
- Tests at various temperatures from 2K up to 600°C.
Thermal measurements can be performed on wafers or packages in operating conditions. Deep expertise has been developed in transient methods to characterize all kinds of defects and traps, as well as thermal effects.
Services currently offered by the infrastructure
CEA-Leti’s multidisciplinary teams deliver solid expertise, leveraging world-class pre-industrialization facilities. With a staff of more than 1,900, a portfolio of 2,700 patents, 91,500 sq. ft. of cleanroom space and a clear IP policy, the institute is based in Grenoble, France, and has offices in Silicon Valley and Tokyo. Leti has launched 60 start-ups and is a member of the Carnot Institutes network.
Both clean room areas and test facilities areas are used for the work with industrial partners and wafers are regularly exchanged with industrial facilities as all protocols for contamination control and traceability are in place. Two offers are currently available in pure access: the OPEN3D initiative which offers 3D integration capabilities in 300mm of heterogeneous wafers including Through Silicon Vias, interposers and packaging; and the 3S initiative which proposes unit processes access on tools available as well as simple integration sequences. Up to 30 projects are running each year from users all over the world, mostly with industrial partners; ratio French/International is typically 40%/60%. Examples of success stories are Suspended micro-channel resonator for MIT for low Mass weighing application, Micro cooling
devices for CERN for LHCb upgrade, Silicon micro-needles for Debiotech for more efficient Vaccines application.